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Research Links & Accessible Databases

 

CATS – Occupational Therapy Critically Appraised Topics Free to access, this is an OT Australia initiative. The site posts short summaries of evidence on a topic of interest, usually focused around a clinical question. Well worth a look but there haven’t been any new topics uploaded since 2014. Link: www.otcats.com/topics/index.html

OT Seeker – Occupational Therapy Systematic Evaluation of Evidence Free database of randomised trials, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines. Citation details and links where able provided. Link: http://www.otseeker.com/default.aspx

SpeechBite Free speech pathology database for the best interventions and treatment efficacy by providing methodological quality ratings of studies. Link: www.speechbite.com

PEDro – Physiotherapy Evidence Database Free database of randomised trials, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines. Citation details and links where able provided. Link: http://www.pedro.org.au/

PubMed Database of citations for biomedical literature. Some links to full text content available. Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/

Science Direct Free access to database of citations of science, technology and medicine literature. Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/

Research Gate Free to join, share and read research publications. Link: https://www.researchgate.net/

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Check out the latest offerings from these Allied Health JOURNALS and ASSOCIATIONS…

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Australian Occupational Therapy Journal

Physiotherapy

Journal of Ageing & Health

  • Marital Strain and Support and Subjective Well-Being in Later Life: Ascribing a Role to Childhood Adversity
    by Laura Upenieks on October 20, 2021 at 8:18 am

    Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print. <br/>Objectives: We integrate the life course perspective with the stress-process model to offer a framework for how childhood conditions moderate the relationship between marital support/strain and subjective well-being in older adulthood for men and women. Methods: Drawing on longitudinal data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), we use a series of lagged dependent-variable models and stratify the sample by gender. Results: Our results suggest that the benefits associated with greater marital support are stronger for those that did not live with both parents in childhood for men. Women raised in families that experienced financial hardship reported lower subjective well-being in the context of marital strain. Conclusion: Adverse experiences in childhood can be scarring or foster resilience related to well-being in the context of strained or supportive marriages.

  • Dementia Family Carers’ Quality of Life and Their Perceptions About Care-receivers’ Dementia Symptoms: The Role of Resilience
    by Dr Argyroula Kalaitzaki on October 19, 2021 at 11:29 am

    Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print. <br/>Aim: The study examined (a) the relationship between caregivers’ (CG) quality of life (QoL) and their reports about care receivers’ dementia symptoms and (b) whether CG’s resilience would be a mediator in this relationship. Method: This was a cross-sectional study based on a purposeful sampling. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with 118 CGs (79% females, mean age = 59, SD = 12). CGs provided assessment of their QoL and resilience, and proxy assessments of people with dementia (PwD) symptoms (cognitive functioning, functional activity and behavioural problems (BP)). Results: The BP were the only perceived dementia symptoms associated with the CGs’ QoL. CGs’ resilience fully mediated the relationship between perceived BP and CGs’ QoL. Implications: Tailored training programs designed to improve CGs’ QoL should focus on strengthening their personal resources, such as skills to manage the behaviour problems exhibited by PwD and their resilience to adapt to self-perceived behaviour problems common to dementia.

  • Predicting Decisional Determinants of Physical Activity Among Older Adults: An Integrated Behavior Approach
    by Christian E. Preissner on October 18, 2021 at 8:50 am

    Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print. <br/>ObjectivesThe present study applied the Integrated Behavior Change Model to investigate how behavioral decisions are predicted, namely, intention, planning, and habits, with respect to physical activity. Methods: Participants were older adults (ages 65+) residing in the U.S. (N = 667) who completed online measures of behavioral determinants (autonomous motivation, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, attitudes, intention, habit, and consistency), in addition to past behavior. Results: A structural equation model revealed that intention was predicted by past behavior and social-cognitive determinants. Social cognitive determinants mediated between past behavior and habit, as well as between autonomous motivation and habit. Intention mediated between past behavior and planning. Discussion: This study highlights the importance of multiple processes (social cognitive, habit/automatic, and post-intentional/planning) that formulate physical activity intentions. Mediation pathways revealed the importance of autonomous motivation for establishing intentions and habit. Facilitating these processes among older adults could be effective for promoting physical activity.

Neurology

  • Reader Response: Guillain-Barre Syndrome in the Placebo and Active Arms of a COVID-19 Vaccine Clinical Trial
    by Willer, J. on October 25, 2021 at 7:45 pm

    Caution is necessary because vaccines may not have just one effect on the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) but a dual effect. Vaccination reduces the risk of GBS by decreasing the risk of infection. On the other hand, vaccines also have a direct effect that increases the risk of GBS by producing antibodies that cross-react with antigens of the peripheral nerves.

  • Author Response: Guillain-Barre Syndrome in the Placebo and Active Arms of a COVID-19 Vaccine Clinical Trial
    by Amato, A. on October 25, 2021 at 7:45 pm

    We thank Dr. Willer for his interest in our case report.1 We agree that vaccines can reduce the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) by reducing infection, but this generally assumes that the specific infection that the vaccine targets also increases the risk of GBS.2 However, as mentioned in our article, a large epidemiological-cohort study from Great Britain found no evidence for causality between COVID-19 and GBS.3 A complicating factor is the reduced incidence of GBS during the pandemic that may be attributed to social distancing, wearing masks, and better hygiene. Nonetheless, GBS and COVID-19 incidences vary between regions and do not correlate with one another. These authors also found no evidence of molecular mimicry between any SARS-CoV-2 proteins and human nerve axonal or myelin proteins that might implicate molecular mimicry. Furthermore, not all vaccines cause GBS. Standard epidemiologic methods were used to identify the rare risk of GBS with other vaccines—such as H1N1—and will be needed to ascertain if there is a risk present for the different available COVID-19 vaccinations.

  • Author Response: Detection of Cerebral Microbleeds With Venous Connection at 7-Tesla MRI
    by Perosa, V., Rotta, J., Schreiber, S. on October 25, 2021 at 7:45 pm

    We thank the authors for the attention dedicated to our study.1 This work reports the presence of microbleeds (MBs) with a spatial connection to veins, as observed on high-resolution Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping. As we openly discuss, we cannot exclude that this observed spatial relationship is not a casual one; only neuropathologic correlation studies can provide certainty. Considering the predominantly arterial pattern of vascular amyloid-β accumulation in cerebral amyloid angiopathy, alternative vessel pathologies—such as venous collagenosis2—are more likely to play a role.

BMJ Paediatrics

  • SARS CoV-2 seroprevalence in a US school district during COVID-19
    by Bullis, S. S. M., Grebber, B., Cook, S., Graham, N. R., Carmolli, M., Dickson, D., Diehl, S. A., Kirkpatrick, B. D., Lee, B. on October 27, 2021 at 3:42 pm

    Reduced symptomatology and access to testing in children have led to underestimates of paediatric COVID-19 prevalence and raised concerns about school safety. To explore COVID-19 prevalence and risk factors in school settings, we conducted a SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey in a Vermont, USA school district in December 2020. Among 336 students (63%) and 196 teachers/staff (37%), adjusted seroprevalence was 4.7% (95% CI 2.9 to 7.2) and was lowest in preK-5 students (4–10 Years). Seroprevalence was 10-fold higher than corresponding state PCR data but was low overall with no evidence of onward transmissions. These results further support feasibility of in-person learning during COVID-19 with appropriate mitigation measures.

  • Voices of youth in the time of COVID-19
    by Goldhagen, J., Choonara, I., Spencer, N. on October 27, 2021 at 3:42 pm
  • Experiences with opt-in, at-home screening for SARS-CoV-2 at a primary school in Germany: an implementation study
    by Wachinger, J., Schirmer, M., Ta&#x0308;uber, N., McMahon, S. A., Denkinger, C. M. on October 20, 2021 at 3:42 pm

    Background Over the course of the pandemic, many countries have repeatedly closed schools and shifted schoolchildren to remote learning. However, evidence for negative mental and physiological health consequences of such measures for schoolchildren is increasing, highlighting the need for evidence-based recommendations on how to safely reopen schools. This study aims to assess implementation experiences, acceptability and feasibility of opt-in, at-home SARS-CoV-2 screening using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to facilitate safe face-to-face teaching during a pandemic. Methods We present data from a prospective study implementing an RDT-based screening programme at a primary school in southwest Germany. In addition to quantitative data collected to assess screening diagnostic yield (number of participants, tests handed out to participants, positive RDT results reported), we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with participating pupils, parents and school stakeholders to elicit implementation experiences and screening perceptions. Results The screening intervention was highly accepted and appreciated among participants; no screening-associated positive RDT was reported over the duration of the study. Self-testing at home before coming to school was feasible, but more positive consequences of screening participation (eg, easing of mask mandates) besides a personal feeling of safety would have been appreciated across respondent groups. Participants preferred home-based RDTs over some other measures, particularly mask mandates. Despite the RDTs being licensed as self-tests in Germany, additional training can help avoid mistakes, and ensuring intervention ownership and improving pre-implementation communication can facilitate buy-in. Conclusions Antigen-RDT-based SARS-CoV-2 screening programmes relying on self-testing at home are a feasible and acceptable supplement to the public health toolbox to facilitate a safe return to face-to-face teaching at schools. Trial registration number DRKS00024845.

Journal of Paediatrics

Paediatric Physical Therapy

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Journal of Orthopaedic amp; Sports Physical Therapy

Australian Journal of Psychology

BMJ Evidence-Based Mental Health Journal

  • Impact of COVID-19 on telepsychiatry at the service and individual patient level across two UK NHS mental health Trusts
    by Hong, J. S., Sheriff, R., Smith, K., Tomlinson, A., Saad, F., Smith, T., Engelthaler, T., Phiri, P., Henshall, C., Ede, R., Denis, M., Mitter, P., D’Agostino, A., Cerveri, G., Tomassi, S., Rathod, S., Broughton, N., Marlowe, K., Geddes, J., Cipriani, A. on October 21, 2021 at 8:00 am

    Background The effects of COVID-19 on the shift to remote consultations remain to be properly investigated. Objective To quantify the extent, nature and clinical impact of the use of telepsychiatry during the COVID-19 pandemic and compare it with the data in the same period of the 2 years before the outbreak. Methods We used deidentified electronic health records routinely collected from two UK mental health Foundation Trusts (Oxford Health (OHFT) and Southern Health (SHFT)) between January and September in 2018, 2019 and 2020. We considered three outcomes: (1) service activity, (2) in-person versus remote modalities of consultation and (3) clinical outcomes using Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) data. HoNOS data were collected from two cohorts of patients (cohort 1: patients with ≥1 HoNOS assessment each year in 2018, 2019 and 2020; cohort 2: patients with ≥1 HoNOS assessment each year in 2019 and 2020), and analysed in clusters using superclasses (namely, psychotic, non-psychotic and organic), which are used to assess overall healthcare complexity in the National Health Service. All statistical analyses were done in Python. Findings Mental health service activity in 2020 increased in all scheduled community appointments (by 15.4% and 5.6% in OHFT and SHFT, respectively). Remote consultations registered a 3.5-fold to 6-fold increase from February to June 2020 (from 4685 to a peak of 26 245 appointments in OHFT and from 7117 to 24 987 appointments in SHFT), with post-lockdown monthly averages of 23 030 and 22 977 remote appointments/month in OHFT and SHFT, respectively. Video consultations comprised up to one-third of total telepsychiatric services per month from April to September 2020. For patients with dementia, non-attendance rates at in-person appointments were higher than remote appointments (17.2% vs 3.9%). The overall HoNOS cluster value increased only in the organic superclass (clusters 18–21, n=174; p<0.001) from 2019 to 2020, suggesting a specific impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on this population of patients. Conclusions and clinical implications The rapid shift to remote service delivery has not reached some groups of patients who may require more tailored management with telepsychiatry.

  • Prediction of treatment dosage and duration from free-text prescriptions: an application to ADHD medications in the Swedish prescribed drug register
    by Zhang, L., Lagerberg, T., Chen, Q., Ghirardi, L., D’Onofrio, B. M., Larsson, H., Viktorin, A., Chang, Z. on October 21, 2021 at 8:00 am

    Background Accurate estimation of daily dosage and duration of medication use is essential to pharmacoepidemiological studies using electronic healthcare databases. However, such information is not directly available in many prescription databases, including the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Objective To develop and validate an algorithm for predicting prescribed daily dosage and treatment duration from free-text prescriptions, and apply the algorithm to ADHD medication prescriptions. Methods We developed an algorithm to predict daily dosage from free-text prescriptions using 8000 ADHD medication prescriptions as the training sample, and estimated treatment periods while taking into account several features including titration, stockpiling and non-perfect adherence. The algorithm was implemented to all ADHD medication prescriptions from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register in 2013. A validation sample of 1000 ADHD medication prescriptions, independent of the training sample, was used to assess the accuracy for predicted daily dosage. Findings In the validation sample, the overall accuracy for predicting daily dosage was 96.8%. Specifically, the natural language processing model (NLP1 and NLP2) have an accuracy of 99.2% and 96.3%, respectively. In an application to ADHD medication prescriptions in 2013, young adult ADHD medication users had the highest probability of discontinuing treatments as compared with other age groups. The daily dose of methylphenidate use increased with age substantially. Conclusions The algorithm provides a flexible approach to estimate prescribed daily dosage and treatment duration from free-text prescriptions using register data. The algorithm showed a good performance for predicting daily dosage in external validation. Clinical implications The structured output of the algorithm could serve as basis for future pharmacoepidemiological studies evaluating utilization, effectiveness, and safety of medication use, which would facilitate evidence-based treatment decision-making.

  • Comparative efficacy and acceptability of psychotherapies for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: a systematic review and network meta-analysis
    by Xiang, Y., Cipriani, A., Teng, T., Del Giovane, C., Zhang, Y., Weisz, J. R., Li, X., Cuijpers, P., Liu, X., Barth, J., Jiang, Y., Cohen, D., Fan, L., Gillies, D., Du, K., Ravindran, A. V., Zhou, X., Xie, P. on October 21, 2021 at 8:00 am

    Background Available evidence on the comparative efficacy and acceptability of psychotherapies for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents remains uncertain. Objective We aimed to compare and rank the different types and formats of psychotherapies for PTSD in children and adolescents. Methods We searched eight databases and other international registers up to 31 December 2020. The pairwise meta-analyses and frequentist network meta-analyses estimated pooled standardised mean differences (SMDs) and ORs with random-effects model. Efficacy at post-treatment and follow-up, acceptability, depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured. Findings We included 56 randomised controlled trials with 5327 patients comparing 14 different types of psychotherapies and 3 control conditions. For efficacy, cognitive processing therapy (CPT), behavioural therapy (BT), individual trauma-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy (TF-CBT), eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing, and group TF-CBT were significantly superior to all control conditions at post-treatment and follow-up (SMDs between –2.42 and –0.25). Moreover, CPT, BT and individual TF-CBT were more effective than supportive therapy (SMDs between –1.92 and –0.49). Results for depressive and anxiety symptoms were similar to the findings for the primary outcome. Most of the results were rated as ‘moderate’ to ‘very low’ in terms of confidence of evidence. Conclusions CPT, BT and individual TF-CBT appear to be the best choices of psychotherapy for PTSD in young patients. Other types and different ways of delivering psychological treatment can be alternative options. Clinicians should consider the importance of each outcome and the patients’ preferences in real clinical practice.

Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

Nutrition & Dietetics

British Journal of Sports Medicine

  • Infographic. Comparative effectiveness of treatments for patellofemoral pain: a living systematic review with network meta-analysis
    by Winters, M., Lyng, K. D., Holden, S., Lura, C. B., Welton, N. J., Caldwell, D. M., Vicenzino, B., Weir, A., Rathleff, M. S. on October 27, 2021 at 8:03 am

    Introduction Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is one of the most common knee complaints and negatively impacts daily living and quality of life.1 Despite its high prevalence, managing PFP is often challenging, with poor prognosis and a large variety of treatment strategies available.2 3 The need for a living systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) There are many systematic reviews that have investigated different head-to-head comparisons for treatment of PFP. However, the comparative effectiveness of all available treatments for PFP has never been investigated. This makes it challenging to decide on the most appropriate treatment. Additionally, systematic reviews need to be updated regularly to reflect the most recent and up-to-date research. A living systematic review with a network NMA allows for the simultaneous comparison of all available treatment strategies for PFP.4 It supports clinicians with an up-to-date and comprehensive overview…

  • Infographic. Sex differences and ACL injuries
    by Marmura, H., Bryant, D. M., Getgood, A. M. on October 27, 2021 at 8:03 am

    Background Females are 2–10 times more likely to suffer an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than males when playing the same sports,1 a discrepancy which has garnered significant research effort and warrants further attention. It is critical to understand the sex-related differences influencing ACL injuries to improve research and care. The Sex and Gender Equity in Research Guidelines provide instructions for incorporating sex and gender differences into health research and emphasise the need to explicitly discuss the associated implications for interpretation of study results and clinical application: https://wwweaseorguk/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Sagerfor-webpdf.2 While traditionally presented as dichotomous, biological sex is a nuanced topic with variations across the population. However, we are currently unable to draw any evidence-based conclusions regarding biological sex variations and ACL injuries, with rigorous research required in this area. Prepuberty There are no known sex differences relevant to ACL injury risk…

  • Social determinants of health are associated with physical therapy use: a systematic review
    by Braaten, A. D., Hanebuth, C., McPherson, H., Smallwood, D., Kaplan, S., Basirico, D., Clewley, D., Rethorn, Z. on October 27, 2021 at 8:03 am

    Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to identify and summarise the social determinants of health (SDH) cited in the literature and evaluate their association with individuals using physical therapy services. Design A systematic review using qualitatively synthesised information to describe the association between SDH and physical therapy use. Data sources The electronic databases Medline, Embase and Scopus were searched from inception to February 2021, identifying observational and qualitative studies. Eligibility criteria Published studies included all adults, aged 18 or older, who independently sought to use physical therapy, in all practice settings from all geographical locations. Results Of the 9248 studies screened, 36 met the inclusion criteria for the review. The participants represented 8 countries and totaled 2 699 437. The majority of the papers reported moderate strength of association for each SDH. Female gender, non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, increased education attainment, urban environment, access to transportation, employment, high socioeconomic status and private insurance were associated with higher likelihood of physical therapy use. Conclusion This systematic review identifies predisposing and enabling factors impacting physical therapy usage among adults in different countries and across physical therapy settings. The results of this study have implications for policy and future research regarding populations that have been shown to be using physical therapy services less, such as those with lower levels of education, those in a rural area, or those in a low socioeconomic class.