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Research Links & Accessible Databases

 

CATS – Occupational Therapy Critically Appraised Topics Free to access, this is an OT Australia initiative. The site posts short summaries of evidence on a topic of interest, usually focused around a clinical question. Well worth a look but there haven’t been any new topics uploaded since 2014. Link: www.otcats.com/topics/index.html

OT Seeker – Occupational Therapy Systematic Evaluation of Evidence Free database of randomised trials, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines. Citation details and links where able provided. Link: http://www.otseeker.com/default.aspx

SpeechBite Free speech pathology database for the best interventions and treatment efficacy by providing methodological quality ratings of studies. Link: www.speechbite.com

PEDro – Physiotherapy Evidence Database Free database of randomised trials, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines. Citation details and links where able provided. Link: http://www.pedro.org.au/

PubMed Database of citations for biomedical literature. Some links to full text content available. Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/

Science Direct Free access to database of citations of science, technology and medicine literature. Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/

Research Gate Free to join, share and read research publications. Link: https://www.researchgate.net/

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Check out the latest offerings from these Allied Health JOURNALS and ASSOCIATIONS…

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Australian Occupational Therapy Journal

Physiotherapy

Journal of Ageing & Health

  • Country Differences in Older Men’s Hearing Difficulty Disadvantage
    by Shane D. Burns on May 6, 2024 at 9:32 am

    Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print. <br/>Objectives: Hearing difficulty is prevalent in older adulthood and projected to increase via global aging, particularly among men. Currently, there is limited research on how this gender disparity might vary by country. Methods: Using 2018 data (n = 29,480) from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) international family of studies, we investigate gender disparities in hearing difficulty among respondents ages 55–89 from the United States (n = 12,566), Mexico (n = 10,762), and Korea (n = 6152) with country-specific ordinal logistic regression models that progressively adjust for demographic, social, and health indicators. Results: In the United States, men’s hearing difficulty disadvantage was consistently observed. In Mexico, men’s hearing difficulty disadvantage was explained by the interactive effect of gender and age group but resurfaced after adjusting for comorbidities. In Korea, there was consistently no gender difference in hearing difficulty. Discussion: Our results highlight the heterogeneity in older men’s hearing difficulty disadvantage among a diverse group of aging countries.

  • Regional Variation in Lifetime Probability of Admission to Residential Aged Care in Australia
    by Mark Cooper-Stanbury on April 26, 2024 at 11:00 am

    Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print. <br/>ObjectivesThis paper aims to apply a novel demographic technique to update – and extend to sub-national regions – estimates of the lifetime probability of admission to residential aged care.MethodsMaking optimal use of Australian data sources on aged care usage, mortality and population, this study adopts a two-population life table approach to produce an updated set of national probability estimates and first-time regional estimates.ResultsThe probability of admission generally increases with age: nationally, lifetime probability at age 65 is 50% for women and 37% for men, rising to 55% and 46%, respectively, at age 85. This general pattern varied somewhat across regions.DiscussionThe regional results point to inequities in the uptake of care, thereby informing providers, governments, aged care advocates and anyone interested in equity of access.

  • The Association of Vision and Hearing Impairment on Cognitive Function and Loneliness: Evidence From the Mexican Health and Aging Study
    by K. Hreha on April 16, 2024 at 12:20 pm

    Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print. <br/>Objectives: We investigated whether self-reported vision and hearing were associated with cognitive function and loneliness among Mexican adults aged 50 and older. Methods: Mexican Health and Aging Study data. Vision/hearing status was self-reported (excellent-very good, good, fair-poor). Cognition was measured using nine tasks. Loneliness was measured using the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Analyses controlled for demographic and health characteristics. Results: Among 12,353 participants (mean age = 67, 58% female), poor vision, but not hearing, was associated with lower global cognition (β = −0.03, p < .05). Poor vision (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.30–1.91) and hearing (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.14–1.61) were associated with higher odds of being lonely after adjusting for demographics and comorbidities, but not when adjusting for limitations in daily activities and depressive symptoms. Discussion: Poor vision is a potentially modifiable risk factor for lower cognition and loneliness among Mexican adults. These associations are partly due to functional characteristics of older adults with poor vision.

Neurology

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BMJ Paediatrics

  • At the threshold of viability: to resuscitate or not to resuscitate – the perspectives of Israeli neonatologists
    by Sperling, D., Riskin, A., Borenstein-Levin, L., Hochwald, O. on May 16, 2024 at 5:08 am

    Objective This study aims to examine the perspectives of neonatologists in Israel regarding resuscitation of preterm infants born at 22–24 weeks gestation and their consideration of parental preferences. The factors that influence physicians’ decisions on the verge of viability were investigated, and the extent to which their decisions align with the national clinical guidelines were determined. Study design Descriptive and correlative study using a 47-questions online questionnaire. Results 90 (71%) of 127 active neonatologists in Israel responded. 74%, 50% and 16% of the respondents believed that resuscitation and full treatment at birth are against the best interests of infants born at 22, 23 and 24 weeks gestation, respectively. Respondents’ decisions regarding resuscitation of extremely preterm infants showed significant variation and were consistently in disagreement with either the national clinical guidelines or the perception of what is in the best interest of these newborns. Gender, experience, country of birth and the level of religiosity were all associated with respondents’ preferences regarding treatment decisions. Personal values and concerns about legal issues were also believed to affect decision-making. Conclusion Significant variation was observed among Israeli neonatologists regarding delivery room management of extremely premature infants born at 22–24 weeks gestation, usually with a notable emphasis on respecting parents’ wishes. The current national guidelines do not fully encompass the wide range of approaches. The country’s guidelines should reflect the existing range of opinions, possibly through a broad survey of caregivers before setting the guidelines and recommendations.

  • Patterns and clinical outcomes of childhood poisoning presenting to a childrens emergency department in Yenagoa, Nigeria: a 10-year retrospective study
    by Areprekumor, T.-E., Joboy-Okei, E., Amadin, N. O., Kalu, S. U. on May 16, 2024 at 5:08 am

    Introduction Background: Childhood poisoning, characterised by exposure to toxic substances, poses a global health concern with variations across regions. Despite the importance of having current information about childhood acute poisoning in our region, there is a noticeable gap in such research in our local context. Regularly reviewing the agents responsible for poisoning in our locale is essential for devising prevention strategies and treatment approaches. This study aimed to examine the patterns and outcomes of childhood poisoning at the Children’s Emergency Department of the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted, analysing cases of childhood poisoning in the Children’s Emergency Ward, presenting from January 2013 to December 2022. Sociodemographic data, types of poisoning agents, home interventions, clinical features and outcomes were extracted from medical records. Results Of 9389 admissions, 81 (0.8%) cases were admitted for childhood poisoning, but only 69 cases were analysed (total n=69). Children aged under 5 years (52.2%) and who were males (59.4%) were mostly involved. Organophosphates (21.7%) and kerosene (20.3%) were common poisoning agents, often accidental (72.5%) and occurring at home (94.2%). Delayed hospital presentation (>2 hours) was common (68.1%). Vomiting (72.5%) and drooling saliva (56.5%) were prevalent symptoms. Hydration (60.9%) was the main hospital intervention, while antidotes were infrequently used (15.9%). Mortality was 8.7%, predominantly due to kerosene ingestion in young children. Conclusion Organophosphate and kerosene poisoning are the most common in this facility. Enforcement challenges persist, emphasising the importance of safe storage practices and improved poison control measures. Addressing resource constraints for antidote availability and increasing awareness are vital for effective management and prevention.

  • Use of digital technologies for staff education and training programmes on newborn resuscitation and complication management: a scoping review
    by Horiuchi, S., Soller, T., Bykersma, C., Huang, S., Smith, R., Vogel, J. P. on May 16, 2024 at 5:08 am

    Background Poor-quality care is linked to higher rates of neonatal mortality in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited educational and upskilling opportunities for healthcare professionals, particularly those who work in remote areas, are key barriers to providing quality neonatal care. Novel digital technologies, including mobile applications and virtual reality, can help bridge this gap. This scoping review aims to identify, analyse and compare available digital technologies for staff education and training to improve newborn care. Methods We conducted a structured search of seven databases (MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), EMCARE (Ovid), Global Health (CABI), CINAHL (EBSCO), Global Index Medicus (WHO) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on 1 June 2023. Eligible studies were those that aimed to improve healthcare providers’ competency in newborn resuscitation and management of sepsis or respiratory distress during the early postnatal period. Studies published in English from 1 January 2000 onwards were included. Data were extracted using a predefined data extraction format. Results The review identified 93 eligible studies, of which 35 were conducted in LMICs. E-learning platforms and mobile applications were common technologies used in LMICs for neonatal resuscitation training. Digital technologies were generally well accepted by trainees. Few studies reported on the long-term effects of these tools on healthcare providers’ education or on neonatal health outcomes. Limited studies reported on costs and other necessary resources to maintain the educational intervention. Conclusions Lower-cost digital methods such as mobile applications, simulation games and/or mobile mentoring that engage healthcare providers in continuous skills practice are feasible methods for improving neonatal resuscitation skills in LMICs. To further consider the use of these digital technologies in resource-limited settings, assessments of the resources to sustain the intervention and the effectiveness of the digital technologies on long-term health provider performance and neonatal health outcomes are required.

Journal of Paediatrics

  • Information for Readers
    on June 1, 2024 at 12:00 am
  • First Things First
    by Thomas R. Welch on June 1, 2024 at 12:00 am

    The past few years have witnessed an explosion of interest in pediatric hypertension, with evolving guidelines for normative data, initial investigations, and stepwise therapy. All of these are predicated, however, on an accurate initial determination of blood pressure. Sadly, this issue has not received as much attention.

  • Table of Contents
    on June 1, 2024 at 12:00 am

Paediatric Physical Therapy

  • Trauma-Informed Care in Pediatric Physical Therapy as a Standard Precaution: The Time Is Here
    by Barreca, Jessica; Swiggum, Mary on March 29, 2024 at 12:00 am

    In this special communication, an overview of the research on trauma, resilience, and action items for the pediatric physical therapist (PT) is addressed. The experiences of early childhood, positive and negative, impact overall development and well-being throughout the lifespan. Childhood trauma can include exposure to abuse, neglect, violence, racism, or medical procedures. These adverse childhood experiences are associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes that can extend into adulthood and can appear in the pediatric rehabilitative realm as caregivers who become labeled noncompliant. Trauma is common and impacts all children; however, some populations, such as children with disabilities, have greater risk for experiencing adversity. An individual’s trauma history is not always visible, necessitating a standard approach. Pediatric PTs must take an intentional approach to address the detrimental effects of trauma on those we serve. Many organizations recommend adopting trauma-informed care as the standard of care for all populations.

  • Journey to 1 Million Steps: A Retrospective Case Series Analyzing the Implementation of Robotic-Assisted Gait Training Into an Outpatient Pediatric Clinic
    by Dierwechter, Brittany; Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie A. on March 29, 2024 at 12:00 am

    Purpose: To describe the implementation of an exoskeleton program in a rehabilitation setting using a Design Thinking framework. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of 3 randomly selected children who participated in skilled physical therapy using a pediatric exoskeleton that occurred on our journey to walking 1 000 000 steps in the exoskeleton devices. Participants ranged in age from 3 to 5 years, and all had neurologic disorders. Results: All participants improved toward achieving their therapy goals, tolerated the exoskeleton well, and had an increased number of steps taken over time. Conclusion: The implementation of new technology into pediatric care and an established outpatient therapy clinic is described. The Design Thinking process applies to health care professionals and improves clinical care. Exoskeletons are effective tools for use in pediatric physical therapy.

  • Introducing the i-Rainbow©: An Evidence-Based, Parent-Friendly Care Pathway Designed for Critically Ill Infants in the NICU Setting
    by Byrne, Eilish M.; Hunt, Katherine; Scala, Melissa on March 29, 2024 at 12:00 am

    Purpose: This study investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of a novel, evidence-based developmental care pathway to be used by health care providers and parents in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting. The i-Rainbow is based on current evidence and responds to individual infant health status. It is not based on infant age. Methods: After development and implementation of the i-Rainbow, pre- and postimplementation nurse and parent survey data were collected and pre- and post–developmental care rates were compared. Results: After i-Rainbow implementation, disagreement among providers on appropriate developmental care interventions significantly decreased, total minutes of daily developmental care and swaddled holding increased significantly, and parents reported that they would recommend the tool. Conclusion: The i-Rainbow is a unique, parent-friendly, infant-based tool that guides sensory interventions in the NICU by staging infants based on cardiorespiratory status and physiologic maturity, not age. The i-Rainbow improved the delivery of developmental care activities in our unit and was well received by parents and nurses. Video Abstract: Supplemental Digital Content available at: http://links.lww.com/PPT/A516

Speech Language & Hearing

International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology

Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research

Journal of Orthopaedic amp; Sports Physical Therapy

Australian Journal of Psychology

BMJ Evidence-Based Mental Health Journal

  • Experiences and impact of psychiatric inpatient admissions far away from home: a qualitative study with young people, parents/carers and healthcare professionals
    by Roe, J., Holland, J., Burn, A.-M., Hopkin, E., Wild, L., Fisher, M., Nazir, S., Ford, T., Dubicka, B., James, A., Tuomainen, H., Fung, N., Horton, K., Wagner, A. P., Morriss, R., Sayal, K. on April 26, 2024 at 4:44 am

    Background There are significant clinical, policy and societal concerns about the impact on young people (YP), from admission to psychiatric wards far from home. However, research evidence is scarce. Aims To investigate the impact of at-distance admissions to general adolescent units, from the perspectives of YP, parents/carers and healthcare professionals (HCPs) including service commissioners, to inform clinical practice, service development and policy. Method Semistructured interviews with purposive samples of YP aged 13–17 years (n=28) and parents/carers (n=19) across five large regions in England, and a national sample of HCPs (n=51), were analysed using a framework approach. Results There was considerable agreement between YP, parents/carers and HCPs on the challenges of at-distance admissions. YP and parents/carers had limited or no involvement in decision-making processes around admission and highlighted a lack of available information about individual units. Being far from home posed challenges with maintaining home contact and practical/financial challenges for families visiting. HCPs struggled with ensuring continuity of care, particularly around maintaining access to local clinical teams and educational support. However, some YP perceived separation from their local environment as beneficial because it removed them from unhelpful environments. At-distance admissions provided respite for some families struggling to support their child. Conclusions At-distance admissions lead to additional distress, uncertainty, compromised continuity of care and educational, financial and other practical difficulties, some of which could be better mitigated. For a minority, there are some benefits from such admissions. Clinical implications Standardised online information, accessible prior to admission, is needed for all Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services units. Additional practical and financial burden placed on families needs greater recognition and consideration of potential sources of support. Policy changes should incorporate findings that at-distance or adult ward admissions may be preferable in certain circumstances.

  • Thematic analysis of Prevention of Future Death reports for suicide: January 2021 to October 2022
    by Wallace, E., Revie, L., Schneider, D., Mais, D., Sharland, E. on April 24, 2024 at 5:05 am

    Background Suicide prevention remains a high priority topic across government and the National Health Service (NHS). Prevention of Future Death (PFD) reports are produced by coroners to highlight concerns that should be addressed by organisations to prevent future deaths in similar circumstances. Objective This research aimed to understand themes from concerns raised in PFD reports for deaths from suicide to inform future policies and strategies for preventing suicide. Methods We employed a retrospective case series design to analyse PFD reports categorised as suicide using qualitative inductive thematic analysis. Primary themes and subthemes were extracted from coroners’ concerns. Following theme extraction, the number of concerns coded to these themes across reports and the frequency of recipient organisation being named as addressee on these reports were assessed as primary outcomes. Findings 12 primary themes and 83 subthemes were identified from 164 reports (4% of all available reports). The NHS was the most frequent recipient of these reports, followed by government departments. Coroners raised issues around processes within or between organisations and difficulties accessing services. The most common concerns fell under the primary theme ‘processes’ (142 mentions), followed by ‘access to services’ (84 mentions). The most frequent subthemes were ‘current training not adequate’ (38 mentions) and ‘inadequate communication between services’ (35 mentions). Conclusions Our results specify areas where review, improvement and policy development are required to prevent future suicide deaths occurring in similar circumstances. Clinical implications These themes highlight concerns across current care and service provision where reform is required for suicide prevention.

  • Sociodemographic and clinical risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in functional/dissociative seizures and epilepsy: a large cohort study
    by Faiman, I., Hodsoll, J., Jasani, I., Young, A. H., Shotbolt, P. on April 20, 2024 at 6:18 am

    Background People with functional/dissociative seizures (FDS) are at elevated suicidality risk. Objective To identify risk factors for suicidality in FDS or epilepsy. Methods Retrospective cohort study from the UK’s largest tertiary mental healthcare provider, with linked national admission data from the Hospital Episode Statistics. Participants were 2383 people with a primary or secondary diagnosis of FDS or epilepsy attending between 01 January 2007 and 18 June 2021. Outcomes were a first report of suicidal ideation and a first hospital admission for suicide attempt (International Classification of Diseases, version 10: X60–X84). Demographic and clinical risk factors were assessed using multivariable bias-reduced binomial-response generalised linear models. Findings In both groups, ethnic minorities had significantly reduced odds of hospitalisation following suicide attempt (OR: 0.45–0.49). Disorder-specific risk factors were gender, age and comorbidity profile. In FDS, both genders had similar suicidality risk; younger age was a risk factor for both outcomes (OR: 0.16–1.91). A diagnosis of depression or personality disorders was associated with higher odds of suicidal ideation (OR: 1.91–3.01). In epilepsy, females had higher odds of suicide attempt-related hospitalisation (OR: 1.64). Age had a quadratic association with both outcomes (OR: 0.88–1.06). A substance abuse disorder was associated with higher suicidal ideation (OR: 2.67). Developmental disorders lowered the risk (OR: 0.16–0.24). Conclusions This is the first study systematically reporting risk factors for suicidality in people with FDS. Results for the large epilepsy cohort complement previous studies and will be useful in future meta-analyses. Clinical implications Risk factors identified will help identify higher-risk groups in clinical settings.

Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

Nutrition & Dietetics

British Journal of Sports Medicine

  • Efficacy of a new injury prevention programme (FUNBALL) in young male football (soccer) players: a cluster-randomised controlled trial
    by Obërtinca, R., Meha, R., Hoxha, I., Shabani, B., Meyer, T., aus der Fünten, K. on May 2, 2024 at 8:50 am

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of a new multicomponent, exercise-based injury prevention programme in football players 13–19 years old. Methods Two-arm cluster-randomised controlled trial with clubs as the unit of randomisation. 55 football teams from Kosovo of the under 15, under 17 and under 19 age groups were randomly assigned to the intervention (INT; 28 teams) or the control group (CON; 27 teams) and were followed for one football season (August 2021–May 2022). The INT group performed the ‘FUNBALL’ programme after their usual warm-up at least twice per week, while the CON group followed their usual training routine. The primary outcome measure was the overall number of football-related injuries. Secondary outcomes were region-specific injuries of the lower limbs (hip/groin, thigh, knee, lower leg, ankle and foot) and injury severity. Results 319 injuries occurred, 132 in the INT and 187 in the CON group. The INT group used the ‘FUNBALL’ programme in 72.2% of all training sessions, on average 2.2 times per week. There was a significantly lower incidence in the INT group regarding the overall number of injuries (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.69, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.87), the number of thigh injuries (IRR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.98), of moderate (time loss between 7 and 28 days) (IRR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.97) and of severe injuries (time loss >28 days) (IRR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.91). Conclusion The ‘FUNBALL’ programme reduced the incidence of football-related injuries among male adolescent football players, and its regular use for injury prevention in this population is recommended. Trial registration number NCT05137015.

  • Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong and consistent predictor of morbidity and mortality among adults: an overview of meta-analyses representing over 20.9 million observations from 199 unique cohort studies
    by Lang, J. J., Prince, S. A., Merucci, K., Cadenas-Sanchez, C., Chaput, J.-P., Fraser, B. J., Manyanga, T., McGrath, R., Ortega, F. B., Singh, B., Tomkinson, G. R. on May 2, 2024 at 8:50 am

    Objective To examine and summarise evidence from meta-analyses of cohort studies that evaluated the predictive associations between baseline cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health outcomes among adults. Design Overview of systematic reviews. Data source Five bibliographic databases were searched from January 2002 to March 2024. Results From the 9062 papers identified, we included 26 systematic reviews. We found eight meta-analyses that described five unique mortality outcomes among general populations. CRF had the largest risk reduction for all-cause mortality when comparing high versus low CRF (HR=0.47; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.56). A dose–response relationship for every 1-metabolic equivalent of task (MET) higher level of CRF was associated with a 11%–17% reduction in all-cause mortality (HR=0.89; 95% CI 0.86 to 0.92, and HR=0.83; 95% CI 0.78 to 0.88). For incident outcomes, nine meta-analyses described 12 unique outcomes. CRF was associated with the largest risk reduction in incident heart failure when comparing high versus low CRF (HR=0.31; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.49). A dose–response relationship for every 1-MET higher level of CRF was associated with a 18% reduction in heart failure (HR=0.82; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.84). Among those living with chronic conditions, nine meta-analyses described four unique outcomes in nine patient groups. CRF was associated with the largest risk reduction for cardiovascular mortality among those living with cardiovascular disease when comparing high versus low CRF (HR=0.27; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.48). The certainty of the evidence across all studies ranged from very low-to-moderate according to Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations. Conclusion We found consistent evidence that high CRF is strongly associated with lower risk for a variety of mortality and incident chronic conditions in general and clinical populations.

  • Suicide in National Collegiate Athletic Association athletes: a 20-year analysis
    by Whelan, B. M., Kliethermes, S. A., Schloredt, K. A., Rao, A., Harmon, K. G., Petek, B. J. on May 2, 2024 at 8:50 am

    Objectives To determine the incidence rate of suicide from 2002 to 2022 among athletes from the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and assess for potential differences by, sex, race, division and sport. Methods NCAA athlete deaths over a 20-year period from 2002 to 2022 were identified. Poisson regression models were built to assess changes in incidence rates over time. Linear and quadratic fits between year and suicide incidence for males and females were evaluated. Results Of 1102 total deaths, 128 (11.6%) deaths by suicide were reported (male n=98, female n=30). The overall incidence was 1:71 145 athlete-years (AYs). Over the last decade, suicide was the second most common cause of death after accidents. The proportion of deaths by suicide doubled from the first 10 years (7.6%) to the second 10 years (15.3%). The suicide incidence rate for males increased linearly (5-year incidence rate ratio 1.32 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.53)), whereas a quadratic association was identified among female athletes (p=0.002), with the incidence rate reaching its lowest point in females in 2010–2011 and increasing thereafter. Male cross-country athletes had the highest suicide incidence rate (1:29 815 AYs) and Division I and II athletes had a higher suicide incidence rate than Division III athletes. No significant differences in suicide incidence rates by sex, race or sport were identified. Conclusion Deaths by suicide among NCAA athletes increased in both males and females throughout the 20-year study period, and suicide is now the second most common cause of death in this population. Greater suicide prevention efforts geared towards NCAA athletes are warranted.