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Research Links & Accessible Databases
CATS – Occupational Therapy Critically Appraised Topics Free to access, this is an OT Australia initiative. The site posts short summaries of evidence on a topic of interest, usually focused around a clinical question. Well worth a look but there haven’t been any new topics uploaded since 2014. Link: www.otcats.com/topics/index.html
OT Seeker – Occupational Therapy Systematic Evaluation of Evidence Free database of randomised trials, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines. Citation details and links where able provided. Link: http://www.otseeker.com/default.aspx
SpeechBite Free speech pathology database for the best interventions and treatment efficacy by providing methodological quality ratings of studies. Link: www.speechbite.com
PEDro – Physiotherapy Evidence Database Free database of randomised trials, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines. Citation details and links where able provided. Link: http://www.pedro.org.au/
PubMed Database of citations for biomedical literature. Some links to full text content available. Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
Science Direct Free access to database of citations of science, technology and medicine literature. Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/
Research Gate Free to join, share and read research publications. Link: https://www.researchgate.net/
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Check out the latest offerings from these Allied Health JOURNALS and ASSOCIATIONS…
Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
- Moving from theory to practice in occupational therapy education for planetary health: A theoretical viewby Ka Yan Hess, Tanya Rihtman on March 24, 2023 at 10:33 am
Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, EarlyView.
- Using the Perceive, Recall, Plan and Perform Assessment of cognitive strategy use with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: Initial exploration of clinical utilityby Rebecca Leanne Smith, Judy Ranka, Melissa Nott on March 11, 2023 at 5:44 am
Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, EarlyView.
- Considering inclusion in digital technology: An occupational therapy role and responsibilityby Jacki Liddle on March 10, 2023 at 11:00 am
Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, EarlyView.
- Implementing a Physiotherapy led Cancer Exercise Programme in a National Cancer Centre: The FIXCAS Studyby Kate Devenney, Niamh Murphy, Ronan Ryan, Clíona Grant, M. John Kennedy, Rustom P. Manecksha, Orla Sheils, Margaret L. McNeely, Juliette Hussey, Grainne Sheill on March 9, 2023 at 12:00 am
To examine the feasibility of implementing a 10-week exercise-based cancer rehabilitation programme in a national cancer centre.
- Future-proofing the Profession: Physiotherapists’ Perceptions of their Current and Emerging Roleby Elizabeth Dean on March 7, 2023 at 12:00 am
This qualitative report is important and reflects the deeper thinking that is needed about the directions of physiotherapy as a leading established health profession . As a profession we have shown less reflexivity and responsiveness to epidemiologic trends since the end of World War 2, over 70 years ago. Given the progressive increase in prevalence of chronic lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases since World War 2, namely, heart disease, cancer, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, obesity, renal disease, autoimmune diseases, and Alzheimer’s disease and that non-invasive interventions are typically superior to drugs and surgery in their prevention, management and often reversal, the profession of physiotherapy is particularly well positioned to take the lead in turning the tide of these diseases, given its contemporary scope of practice.
- Editorson March 1, 2023 at 12:00 am
Journal of Ageing & Health
- Acceptability of Intergenerational Physical Activity Programming: A Mixed Methods Study of Latino Aging Adults in Nebraskaby Athena K. Ramos on March 24, 2023 at 4:41 am
Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print. <br/>ObjectiveThis study explored Hispanic/Latino aging adults’ interest in and preferences for intergenerational physical activity programming.MethodsWe used an exploratory sequential (Qual-QUAN) mixed methods design consisting of three focus groups (N = 13 participants; M age = 62.5 years old) and a quantitative survey (N = 105 participants; M age = 57.3 years old).ResultsWe found that most participants were interested in intergenerational physical activity programs: (1) to promote overall health and well-being, (2) increase opportunities for socialization and relationships, and (3) foster motivation and energy. Preferences for programming included cultural tailoring, bilingual and Spanish-language offerings, and being conducted in-person. Barriers to physical activity included cost, scheduling, transportation, and limited awareness of community resources.DiscussionInnovative public health initiatives incorporating an intergenerational approach may promote physical activity among aging adults. This study has implications for developing and refining intergenerational programming with Hispanic/Latino communities.
- Cohort Differences in Depressive Symptoms and Life Satisfaction in 75- and 80-Year-Olds: A Comparison of Two Cohorts 28 Years Apartby Tiia Kekäläinen on March 22, 2023 at 8:00 am
Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print. <br/>ObjectivesTo examine birth cohort differences in depressive symptoms and life satisfaction in older men and women and the mechanisms underpinning the possible cohort differences.MethodsTwo independent cohorts of Finnish men and women aged 75 and 80 were assessed in 1989–1990 (n = 617) and 2017–2018 (n = 794). They reported their depressive symptoms (CES-D), current life satisfaction, and evaluation of life until now.ResultsThe later-born cohort reported fewer depressive symptoms (8.6 ± 7.1 vs. 13.9 ± 8.3) and the differences were similar for the subdomains of depressive symptoms. The later-born cohort was more often mostly satisfied with life until now (90 vs. 70%) but not with the current life than the earlier-born cohort. Better self-rated health and education of the later-born cohort partly explain the cohort differences.DiscussionOlder people in Finland report fewer depressive symptoms and they are more satisfied with their past life compared to their counterparts assessed 28 years ago.
- Race-Ethnic Differences in the Effects of COVID-19 on the Work, Stress, and Financial Outcomes of Older Adultsby Kendra Jason on March 4, 2023 at 11:31 am
Journal of Aging and Health, Ahead of Print. <br/>ObjectivesThis study investigates race-ethnic differences among older non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic adults’ financial, employment, and stress consequences of COVID-19.MethodsWe use data from the Health and Retirement Study, including the 2020 COVID-panel, to evaluate a sample of 2,929 adults using a combination of bivariate tests, OLS regression analysis, and moderation tests.ResultsHispanic and non-Hispanic Black older adults experienced more financial hardships, higher levels of COVID-19 stress, and higher rates of job loss associated with COVID-19 relative to their Non-Hispanic White counterparts. Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic adults reported significantly higher levels of COVID-19 resilience resources, yet, these resources were not protective of the consequences of COVID-19.DiscussionUnderstanding how the experiences of managing and coping with COVID-19 stressors differ by race-ethnicity can better inform intervention design and support services.
- Association of CSF and Serum Neurofilament Light and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Injury Severity, and Outcome in Spinal Cord Injuryby Stukas, S., Cooper, J., Gill, J., Fallah, N., Skinnider, M. A., Belanger, L., Ritchie, L., Tsang, A., Dong, K., Streijger, F., Street, J., Paquette, S., Ailon, T., Dea, N., Charest-Morin, R., Fisher, C. G., Bailey, C. S., Dhall, S., Mac-Thiong, J.-M., Wilson, J. R., Christie, S., Dvorak, M. F., Wellington, C. L., Kwon, B. K. on March 20, 2023 at 7:45 pm
Background and Objectives Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is highly heterogeneous, and tools to better delineate pathophysiology and recovery are needed. Our objective was to profile the response of 2 biomarkers, neurofilament light (NF-L) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), in the serum and CSF of patients with acute SCI to evaluate their ability to objectively characterize injury severity and predict neurologic recovery. Methods Blood and CSF samples were obtained from prospectively enrolled patients with acute SCI through days 1–4 postinjury, and the concentration of NF-L and GFAP was quantified using Simoa technology. Neurologic assessments defined the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) grade and motor score (MS) at presentation and 6 months postinjury. Results One hundred eighteen patients with acute SCI (78 AIS A, 20 AIS B, and 20 AIS C) were enrolled, with 113 (96%) completing 6-month follow-up. NF-L and GFAP levels were strongly associated between paired serum and CSF specimens, were both increased with injury severity, and distinguished among baseline AIS grades. Serum NF-L and GFAP were significantly (p = 0.02 to <0.0001) higher in AIS A patients who did not improve at 6 months, predicting AIS grade conversion with a sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) of 76% (61, 87) and 77% (55, 92) using NF-L and 72% (57, 84) and 77% (55, 92) using GFAP at 72 hours, respectively. Independent of clinical baseline assessment, a serum NF-L threshold of 170 pg/mL at 72 hours predicted those patients who would be classified as motor complete (AIS A/B) compared with motor incomplete (AIS C/D) at 6 months with a sensitivity of 87% (76, 94) and specificity of 84% (69, 94); a serum GFAP threshold of 13,180 pg/mL at 72 hours yielded a sensitivity of 90% (80, 96) and specificity of 84% (69, 94). Discussion The potential for NF-L and GFAP to classify injury severity and predict outcome after acute SCI will be useful for patient stratification and prognostication in clinical trials and inform communication of prognosis. Classification of Evidence This study provides Class I evidence that higher serum NF-L and GFAP are associated with worse neurological outcome after acute SCI. Trial Registration Information Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00135278 (March 2006) and NCT01279811 (January 2012).
- Clinical and Neurophysiologic Phenotypes in Neonates With BRAT1 Encephalopathyby Carapancea, E., Cornet, M.-C., Milh, M., De Cosmo, L., Huang, E. J., Granata, T., Striano, P., Ceulemans, B., Stein, A., Morris-Rosendahl, D., Conti, G., Mitra, N., Raymond, F. L., Rowitch, D. H., Solazzi, R., Vercellino, F., De Liso, P., D’Onofrio, G., Boniver, C., Danhaive, O., Carkeek, K., Salpietro, V., Weckhuysen, S., Fedrigo, M., Angelini, A., Castellotti, B., Lederer, D., Benoit, V., Raviglione, F., Guerrini, R., Dilena, R., Cilio, M. R. on March 20, 2023 at 7:45 pm
Background and Objectives BRAT1 encephalopathy is an ultra-rare autosomal recessive neonatal encephalopathy. We delineate the neonatal electroclinical phenotype at presentation and provide insights for early diagnosis. Methods Through a multinational collaborative, we studied a cohort of neonates with encephalopathy associated with biallelic pathogenic variants in BRAT1 for whom detailed clinical, neurophysiologic, and neuroimaging information was available from the onset of symptoms. Neuropathologic changes were also analyzed. Results We included 19 neonates. Most neonates were born at term (16/19) from nonconsanguineous parents. 15/19 (79%) were admitted soon after birth to a neonatal intensive care unit, exhibiting multifocal myoclonus, both spontaneous and exacerbated by stimulation. 7/19 (37%) had arthrogryposis at birth, and all except 1 progressively developed hypertonia in the first week of life. Multifocal myoclonus, which was present in all but 1 infant, was the most prominent manifestation and did not show any EEG correlate in 16/19 (84%). Video-EEG at onset was unremarkable in 14/19 (74%) infants, and 6 (33%) had initially been misdiagnosed with hyperekplexia. Multifocal seizures were observed at a median age of 14 days (range: 1–29). During the first months of life, all infants developed progressive encephalopathy, acquired microcephaly, prolonged bouts of apnea, and bradycardia, leading to cardiac arrest and death at a median age of 3.5 months (range: 20 days to 30 months). Only 7 infants (37%) received a definite diagnosis before death, at a median age of 34 days (range: 25–126), and almost two-thirds (12/19, 63%) were diagnosed 8 days to 12 years postmortem (median: 6.5 years). Neuropathology examination, performed in 3 patients, revealed severely delayed myelination and diffuse astrogliosis, sparing the upper cortical layers. Discussion BRAT1 encephalopathy is a neonatal-onset, rapidly progressive neurologic disorder. Neonates are often misdiagnosed as having hyperekplexia, and many die undiagnosed. The key phenotypic features are multifocal myoclonus, an organized EEG, progressive, persistent, and diffuse hypertonia, and an evolution into refractory multifocal seizures, prolonged bouts of apnea, bradycardia, and early death. Early recognition of BRAT1 encephalopathy allows for prompt workup, appropriate management, and genetic counseling.
- Author Response: Association Between Dietary Habits in Midlife With Dementia Incidence Over a 20-Year Periodby Glans, I. on March 20, 2023 at 7:45 pm
We thank Dr. Kawada and Dr. Hoffman for their comments on our study in which we analyzed the association between dietary habits and APOE-4.1 We did not find any significant interaction effects between either conventional dietary recommendations or a modified Mediterranean diet and APOE-4 status (eTables 13 and 14, links.lww.com/WNL/C345).1
- Skin-to-skin contact in the delivery room for very preterm infants: a randomised clinical trialby Kristoffersen, L., Bergseng, H., Engesland, H., Bagstevold, A., Aker, K., Stoen, R. on March 23, 2023 at 2:09 pm
Objective Evaluating safety, feasibility and effects on physiological parameters of skin-to-skin contact (SSC) from birth between mothers and very preterm infants in a high-income setting. Design Open-label randomised controlled trial. Setting Three Norwegian neonatal units. Patients Preterm infants at gestational age (GA) 280–316 weeks and birth weight >1000g delivered vaginally or by caesarean section (C-section). Intervention Two hours of early SSC between the mother and the infant compared to standard care (SC) where the infant is separated from the mother and transferred to the neonatal unit in an incubator. Results 108 infants (63% male, 57% C-section, mean (SD) GA 30.3 weeks (1.3) and birth weight 1437 g (260)) were included. Median (IQR) age at randomisation was 23 min (17–30). During the first 2 hours after randomisation, 4% (2 of 51) and 7% (4 of 57) were hypothermic (<36.0°C) in the SSC and SC group, respectively (p=0.68, OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.1 to 3.1). Significantly fewer infants in the SSC group had hyperthermia (>37.5°C) (26% (13 of 57) vs 47% (27 of 51), respectively, p=0.02, OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.9). No infant needed mechanical ventilation within the first 2 hours. Median (IQR) duration of SSC was 120 (80–120) min in the intervention group. There was no difference in heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation between groups during the first 24 hours. Conclusion This study from a high-income setting confirmed that SSC from birth for very preterm infants was safe and feasible. Physiological parameters were not affected by the intervention. The long-term effects on neurodevelopment, maternal–infant bonding and maternal mental health will be collected. Trial registration number NCT02024854.
- Management of traumatic dental injuries: a survey of paediatric emergency department health professionalsby Gallichan, N., Albadri, S., Watkins, F., Jarad, F., Messahel, S., Hartshorn, S., Gartshore, L. on March 22, 2023 at 1:04 pm
Objective To assess paediatric emergency department (PED) health professionals’ confidence, experience and awareness in managing traumatic dental injuries (TDIs). Design A cross-sectional online survey. Setting PED at Alder Hey Children’s Hospital and Birmingham Children’s Hospital. Results 94 ED health professionals responded. One-third of responders (n=26) encounter children with dental trauma daily or weekly. TDI teaching during undergraduate training was received by 13% (n=12) of responders, and 32% (n=30) had never received training. Responders thought they would benefit from online resources and regular teaching on paediatric TDIs, in addition to an easy-to-use decision-making tool to signpost families. ED health professionals’ confidence in giving advice to families following a TDI, and in recognising types of TDIs, was notably low; –79 and –76 Net Promotor Score, respectively. Responders’ awareness of how to recognise and manage TDIs was varied. Majority were aware of the need to attempt to reimplant an avulsed permanent tooth, and the need to refer a child presenting with a complex permanent tooth injury to the oncall dentist. However, very few responders commented on the importance of follow-up. Responders also raised concerns about the lack of dental services to treat TDIs in children. Conclusions There is a need to enhance dental trauma teaching for all ED health professionals who encounter TDIs to increase their confidence and enable them to triage and advise patients appropriately. Additionally, increased signposting for families to the appropriate service could in turn improve outcomes and experience for children who experience a TDI.
- Screening and diagnosis of neonatal hypoglycaemia in at-risk late preterm and term infants following AAP recommendations: a single centre retrospective studyby Anderson Enni, J. B., Narasimhan, S. R., Huang, A., Jegatheesan, P. on March 20, 2023 at 1:55 pm
Background There is a lack of consensus regarding the definition and treatment threshold for neonatal hypoglycaemia. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has a published clinical report making recommendations on practice guidelines. There is limited literature discussing the impact of these guidelines. In this study, we evaluated the screening and diagnosis of neonatal hypoglycaemia following the AAP guidelines. Methods Infants born ≥35 weeks gestational age and admitted to the well–baby nursery between January and December 2017 were included in this study. Our hypoglycaemia policy was based on the AAP clinical report for hypoglycaemia management in newborns. Chart review was done to obtain infant hypoglycaemia risk factors and blood glucose values in the first 24 hours. Data analysis was conducted using Stata V.14.2 (StataCorp). Results Of 2873 infants born and admitted to the well–baby nursery, 32% had at least one hypoglycaemia risk factor and 96% of them were screened for hypoglycaemia. Screened infants were more likely to be born at a lower gestational age, via C-section, and to a multiparous older mother. Screened infants and hypoglycaemic infants had lower exclusive breastfeeding rates compared with those who were not screened or not hypoglycaemic, respectively. Sixteen per cent of screened infants were diagnosed with hypoglycaemia; 0.8% of at-risk screened infants and 5% of hypoglycaemic infants were admitted to the NICU for treatment of hypoglycaemia. Thirty-one per cent of preterm infants, 15% of large for gestational age infants, 13% of small for gestational age infants and 15% of infants of diabetic mothers were hypoglycaemic. Hypoglycaemic infants were more likely to be born preterm and via C-section. Conclusion Using the AAP time-based definitional blood glucose cut-off values, our incidence of hypoglycaemia found in those who were screened for risk factors was lower compared with other studies. Future long-term follow-up studies will be important.
Journal of Paediatrics
- Interleukin-1 blockade for recurrent pericarditis: Insights from the real-world experienceby George Lazaros, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Dimitrios Vassilopoulos, R. Caorsi, A. Insalaco, M. Gattorno on March 22, 2023 at 12:00 am
The efficacy and safety of anakinra is firmly established in both pediatric and adult populations based upon the results of a randomized trial (AIRTRIP) and an international registry (IRAP).1,2 The study of Caorsi et al raises two important points that should be taken into account when treating patients with recurrent pericarditis.3 First, 25% of pediatric patients were underdosed with first-line medications before commencing anakinra. This highlights the paramount importance of referring these patients to specialized centers.
- Clinical Manifestations and Management of Pediatric Granuloma Annulare: A Systematic Reviewby Marie Albert, Annabel Maruani, Sophie Leducq on March 20, 2023 at 12:00 am
To determine the clinical manifestations, management, and outcomes of pediatric granuloma annulare.
- Going Virtual: Adapting an Institutional Annual Bereavement Event During the COVID-19 Pandemicby J.A. Zavadil, M. Singh, EG. Robertson, L. Clark, J.M. Snaman, M. McNeil, A. Acerra, JN. Baker on March 18, 2023 at 12:00 am
Our institution’s annual bereaved family event was modified to a virtual format during the COVID-19 pandemic. While necessary to comply with physical distancing directives, the transition also provided greater accessibility for families. Virtual events were feasible and appreciated by attendees. Future hybrid bereavement events should be considered to allow families more flexibility and accessibility.
Paediatric Physical Therapy
- Commentary on “The General Movements Motor Optimality Score in High-Risk Infants: A Systematic Scoping Review”by McCarty, Dana; Cunningham, Catherine on January 1, 2023 at 12:00 am
No abstract available
- Comparison of Gross Motor Outcomes Between Children With Cerebral Palsy From Appalachian and Non-Appalachian Countiesby Bican, Rachel; Noritz, Garey; Heathcock, Jill on January 1, 2023 at 12:00 am
Purpose: This study evaluated gross motor outcomes between children with cerebral palsy from non-Appalachian and Appalachian counties in the United States. Methods: For this retrospective, matched-case controlled study, data were sourced from electronic medical record and compared between groups. Groups were matched by age and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level. Results: Children from Appalachian counties had significantly higher Gross Motor Function Measure, 66 (GMFM-66) scores and had a cerebral palsy diagnosis reported in the electronic medical record significantly later compared with children from non-Appalachian counties, controlling for age and GMFCS level. Conclusion: Although it has been documented that families and children from Appalachian counties have poorer overall health outcomes, motor development may not be affected. Our study found that children with cerebral palsy from Appalachian counties scored significantly higher on the GMFM-66 across GMFCS levels.
- Announcementson January 1, 2023 at 12:00 am
No abstract available
Speech Language & Hearing
- Multisyllabic word production by Jordanian Arabic speaking childrenby Anas I. Al huneety on March 23, 2023 at 1:20 am
- Assessing school readiness in children with cochlear implants using an Arabic language-based testby Rana Alkhamra on February 17, 2023 at 8:52 am
- ‘Each person’s experience is different’: speech-language pathologists’ perspectives regarding their pathway to the Australian rural workforceby Chloe Cochrane on February 15, 2023 at 6:23 am
International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology
- Cognitive-communication difficulties due to traumatic brain injury sustained in adults 55 years and older: A survey of speech-language pathology professional practice in Australiaby Joanna Shorland on March 15, 2023 at 2:09 am
- Co-designing a shared book reading environment at a community hubby Helen Smith on March 10, 2023 at 12:30 pm
- Best practice recommendations for speech-language pathology in children with neuromuscular disorders: A Delphi-based consensus studyby Mieke Kooi-van Es on March 10, 2023 at 12:07 pm
Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research
- Effects of Production Training With Ultrasound Biofeedback on Production and Perception of Second-Language English Tense–Lax Vowel Contrastsby Yung-hsiang Shawn Chang on March 24, 2023 at 7:00 am
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, Ahead of Print. <br/>
- Identifying an Appropriate Picture Stimulus for a Bangla Picture Description Taskby Barnali Mazumdar Neila J. Donovan E. Susan Duncan on March 22, 2023 at 7:00 am
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, Ahead of Print. <br/>
- Consumer Survey on Hearing Aid Benefit and Satisfactionby Larissa Bannon Erin M. Picou Abram Bailey Vinaya Manchaiah on March 21, 2023 at 7:00 am
Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, Ahead of Print. <br/>
Journal of Orthopaedic amp; Sports Physical Therapy
- Age-, Sex-, and Graft-Specific Reference Values From 783 Adolescent Patients at 5 to 7 Months After ACL Reconstruction: IKDC, Pedi-IKDC, KOOS, ACL-RSI, Single-Leg Hop, and Thigh Strengthby Christopher Kuenze on March 20, 2023 at 1:29 am
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, Volume 53, Issue 4, Page 1-8, April 2023. <br/>
- Differences in Recovery of Tendon Health Explained by Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy Subgroups: A 6-Month Follow-upby Shawn L. Hanlon on March 20, 2023 at 1:28 am
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, Volume 53, Issue 4, Page 1-18, April 2023. <br/>
- The Kinetic Chain Has a Brain: Could Adding Cognitive Demands in Lower Limb Injury Prevention Programs Improve Outcomes?by Wendy E. Huddleston on March 20, 2023 at 1:24 am
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, Volume 53, Issue 4, Page 1-3, April 2023. <br/>
Australian Journal of Psychology
- Retracted: The impact of construal level on happiness, hope, optimism, life satisfaction, and love of life: A longitudinal and experimental study by Alfalah and Soud A. Alganemon December 9, 2020 at 1:04 pm
Australian Journal of Psychology, Volume 72, Issue 4, Page 380-380, December 2020.
- Issue Informationon November 11, 2020 at 8:00 am
Australian Journal of Psychology, Volume 72, Issue 4, Page 305-306, December 2020.
- A stimulus set of people famous to current generation Australian undergraduates, with recognition norms for face images and namesby Corinne Stoney, Rachel A. Robbins, Elinor McKone on November 11, 2020 at 8:00 am
Australian Journal of Psychology, Volume 72, Issue 4, Page 328-336, December 2020.
BMJ Evidence-Based Mental Health Journal
- Exploring the efficacy of psychotherapies for depression: a multiverse meta-analysisby Plessen, C. Y., Karyotaki, E., Miguel, C., Ciharova, M., Cuijpers, P. on March 13, 2023 at 1:33 pm
Background Hundreds of randomised controlled trials and dozens of meta-analyses have examined psychotherapies for depression—yet not all points in the same direction. Are these discrepancies a result of specific meta-analytical decisions or do most analytical strategies reaching the same conclusion? Objective We aim to solve these discrepancies by conducting a multiverse meta-analysis containing all possible meta-analyses, using all statistical methods. Study selection and analysis We searched four bibliographical databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials), including studies published until 1 January 2022. We included all randomised controlled trials comparing psychotherapies with control conditions without restricting the type of psychotherapy, target group, intervention format, control condition and diagnosis. We defined all possible meta-analyses emerging from combinations of these inclusion criteria and estimated the resulting pooled effect sizes with fixed-effect, random-effects, 3-level, robust variance estimation, p-uniform and PET-PEESE (precision-effect test and precision-effect estimate with SE) meta-analysis models. This study was preregistered (https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050197). Findings A total of 21 563 records were screened, and 3584 full texts were retrieved; 415 studies met our inclusion criteria containing 1206 effect sizes and 71 454 participants. Based on all possible combinations between inclusion criteria and meta-analytical methods, we calculated 4281 meta-analyses. The average summary effect size for these meta-analyses was Hedges’ g mean=0.56, a medium effect size, and ranged from g=–0.66 to 2.51. In total, 90% of these meta-analyses reached a clinically relevant magnitude. Conclusions and Clinical Implications The multiverse meta-analysis revealed the overall robustness of the effectiveness of psychotherapies for depression. Notably, meta-analyses that included studies with a high risk of bias, compared the intervention with wait-list control groups, and not correcting for publication bias produced larger effect sizes.
- Decoding fMRI alcohol cue reactivity and its association with drinking behaviourby Tan, H., Gerchen, M. F., Bach, P., Lee, A. M., Hummel, O., Sommer, W., Kirsch, P., Kiefer, F., Vollstädt-Klein, S. on February 23, 2023 at 1:07 pm
Background Cue reactivity, the enhanced sensitivity to conditioned cues, is associated with habitual and compulsive alcohol consumption. However, most previous studies in alcohol use disorder (AUD) compared brain activity between alcohol and neutral conditions, solely as cue-triggered neural reactivity. Objective This study aims to find the neural subprocesses during the processing of visual alcohol cues in AUD individuals, and how these neural patterns are predictive for relapse. Methods Using cue reactivity and rating tasks, we separately modelled the patterns decoding the processes of visual object recognition and reward appraisal of alcohol cues with representational similarity analysis, and compared the decoding involvements (ie, distance between neural responses and hypothesised decoding models) between AUD and healthy individuals. We further explored connectivity between the identified neural systems and the whole brain and predicted relapse within 6 months using decoding involvements of the neural patterns. Findings AUD individuals, compared with healthy individuals, showed higher involvement of motor-related brain regions in decoding visual features, and their reward, habit and executive networks were more engaged in appraising reward values. Connectivity analyses showed the involved neural systems were widely connected with higher cognitive networks during alcohol cue processing in AUD individuals, and decoding involvements of frontal eye fields and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex could contribute to relapse prediction. Conclusions These findings provide insight into how AUD individuals differently decode alcohol cues compared with healthy participants, from the componential processes of visual object recognition and reward appraisal. Clinical implications The identified patterns are suggested as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in AUD.
- What I stand for as BMJ Mental Health editorby Cipriani, A. on February 15, 2023 at 2:47 pm
Welcome to BMJ Mental Health. In January 2023, Evidence-Based Mental Health (EBMH) has changed its name to BMJ Mental Health, after 25 years of activity (the journal was founded in 1998) and after recently becoming one of the top 10 psychiatric journals in terms of impact factor. BMJ Mental Health is now online only and entirely open access. Changing name is not just a rebranding exercise. It is a fantastic opportunity to do things better and reach a wider audience of mental health clinicians and researchers. In the last year, EBMH published a variety of original articles, spanning from global health,1 self-harm2 and suicide3 to pharmacological interventions4 5 and psychological therapies,6 7 from childhood mental disorders8 to innovative methods in evidence synthesis.9 10 This is a great achievement for…
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
- 2022 Academy Member Benefits Updateon April 1, 2023 at 12:00 am
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) is the largest organization of food and nutrition experts in the world, supporting more than 100,000 credentialed practitioners—registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs), nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered (NDTR), and other food and nutrition professionals holding undergraduate and advanced degrees in nutrition and dietetics, and students. The Academy responds to the evolving needs of its diverse members with a lineup of benefits designed to serve members whose backgrounds, interests, skills, and experience span the entirety of our dynamic profession.
- Table of Contentson April 1, 2023 at 12:00 am
- April 2023 New in Reviewon April 1, 2023 at 12:00 am
Rodger A, Vezevicius A, Papies EK. Appetite. 2023; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2023.106459
Nutrition & Dietetics
- Transformative systemic changes to embed environmental sustainability in foodservices: A grounded theory explorationby Madison E. Smeltzer, Alexandra R. Davidson, D. P. Reidlinger, Kristen L. MacKenzie‐Shalders on March 21, 2023 at 3:33 am
Nutrition &Dietetics, EarlyView.
- Disciplined appetites: Reimagining food and nutrition programs for people living with HIV and AIDSby Phillip Joy, Chad Hammond, Brianna Hammond, Abigail Clarke, Jessica Mannette, Barbara‐Ann Hamilton‐Hinch, Shannan Grant on March 21, 2023 at 3:19 am
Nutrition &Dietetics, EarlyView.
- Navigating nutrition as a childhood cancer survivor: Understanding patient and family needs for nutrition interventions or educationby Emma Clarke, Gemma Pugh, Eveline Heuvel, Erin Kavanagh, Pamela Cheung, Andrew Wood, Mark Winstanley, Andrea Braakhuis, Amy L. Lovell on March 14, 2023 at 7:44 am
Nutrition &Dietetics, EarlyView.
British Journal of Sports Medicine
- Infographic. Prehospital management of exertional heat stroke at sports competitions for Paralympic athletesby Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L., Hosokawa, Y., Webborn, N., Blauwet, C., Adami, P. E. on March 23, 2023 at 1:33 pm
This infographic presents a summary of the prehospital management of exertional heat stroke (EHS) at sports competitions for Para athletes.1 Our original article was designed to provide Para athlete-specific modifications to the original EHS algorithm that was developed and implemented at the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games.2 Both the Olympic and Paralympic algorithms were successfully rolled out during educational workshops leading into the games, and implemented with support of the organising committee medical volunteers in Tokyo. It is the authors’ intention that these algorithms can be used at other events where Para athletes compete, given that competitive para sport opportunities are expanding. For example, we now see Para athletes appearing at the Diamond league athletic programme and at integrated elite sport events such as the Commonwealth Games, which recently featured fully integrated national teams in ten events in five different para sports. As a sport and…
- Impact of swim training loads on shoulder musculoskeletal physical qualities (PhD Academy Award)by Yoma, M. on March 23, 2023 at 1:33 pm
What did I do? I investigated the effects of swim training loads on physical qualities of the shoulder. The aim was to widen the knowledge of the interaction between training loads and potential risk factors for shoulder pain in competitive swimmers. Why did I do it? The aetiology of injuries is multifactorial including the dynamic interaction between multiple risk factors.1 Competitive swimmers are exposed to large training loads, swimming up to 14 000 m/day.2 Shoulder pain is the main reason for missed training,3 with up to 91% prevalence.3 Several modifiable risk factors for shoulder pain, relating to physical qualities of the shoulder (eg, range of motion (ROM), flexibility and strength), have been identified in swimmers.4 Although there is consensus that shoulder pain in swimmers is mainly caused by excessive training loads, research is lacking investigating its interaction with…
- Is daytime napping an effective strategy to improve sport-related cognitive and physical performance and reduce fatigue? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trialsby Mesas, A. E., Nunez de Arenas-Arroyo, S., Martinez-Vizcaino, V., Garrido-Miguel, M., Fernandez-Rodriguez, R., Bizzozero-Peroni, B., Torres-Costoso, A. I. on March 23, 2023 at 1:33 pm
Objective To estimate the association between daytime napping and cognitive and physical sport performance and fatigue after normal sleep and partial sleep deprivation (less sleep duration than necessary). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources The PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Central, SportDiscus and PsycINFO databases. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials on the effect of daytime napping on sport performance and fatigue available from inception to 2 December 2022. Standardised mean differences (SMD) and their 95% compatibility intervals (CI) were estimated with the DerSimonian-Laird method through random effect models. Results In the 22 included trials, 291 male participants (164 trained athletes and 127 physically active adults) aged between 18 and 35 years were studied. When performed after a normal night of sleep, napping from 12:30 hours to 16:50 hours (with 14:00 hours being the most frequent time) improved cognitive (SMD=0.69, 95% CI: 0.37 to 1.00; I2=71.5%) and physical performance (SMD=0.99, 95% CI: 0.67 to 1.31; I2=89.1%) and reduced the perception of fatigue (SMD=–0.76, 95% CI: –1.24 to –0.28; I2=89.5%). The positive effects of napping were also confirmed after partial sleep deprivation. Overall, the benefits were higher with a nap duration between 30 and <60 min and when the time from nap awakening to test was greater than 1 hour. Conclusions After a night of normal sleep or partial sleep deprivation, a daytime nap between 30 and <60 min has a moderate-to-high effect on the improvement of cognitive performance and physical performance and on the reduction of perceived fatigue. PROSPERO registration number CRD42020212272.